The development of cathode and anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is based
on improvement to power and energy density
as well as the thermal/chemical stability for enhancements in battery life and
The theoretical capacity of a lithium-ion battery is determined by the materials used.
In electrode processing, knowledge of particle morphology—including particle size, shape, powder density, porosity and surface area—have critical affect to manufacturability and the desired performance characteristics of
The electrodes porosity structure has a direct influence on particle to particle contact between the active material and the conductive diluent. Porosity is essential for the electrolyte to transport lithium-ions to and from the active materials of the electrode.
By controlling porosity, higher intra-electrode conductivity can be achieved to ensure adequate electron exchange as well as sufficient void space for electrolyte access/transport of lithium-ions for intercalation of the cathode. Porosity blocking/clogging during intercalation
can lead to capacity fade.